Preface 1. Introduction 1.1 "The Last Electromagnetic Window" 1.2 Energy Domains of Gamma Ray Astronomy 1.3 Gamma Ray Astronomy: A Discipline in Its Own Right 2. Status of the Field 2.1 Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources 2.1.1 The COMPTEL source catalog 2.2 High Energy Gamma Ray Sources 2.2.1 GeV blazars 2.2.2 GeV pulsars 2.2.3 Unidentified EGRET sources 2.3 The Status of Ground-Based Gamma Ray Astronomy 2.3.1 Brief historical review 2.3.2 Reported TeV sources 220.127.116.11 The Crab Nebula 18.104.22.168 Other plerions 22.214.171.124 Gamma ray pulsars 126.96.36.199 Gamma rays from supernova remnants 188.8.131.52 Other galactic sources 184.108.40.206 TeV blazars 220.127.116.11 Other extragalactic objects 2.3.3 Next generation of IACT arrays Very High Energy Cosmic Gamma Radiation 18.104.22.168 Atmospheric Cherenkov radiation 22.214.171.124 Stereoscopic detection of Cherenkov images 126.96.36.199 IACT arrays 188.8.131.52 Sub-10 GeV ground based detectors? 184.108.40.206 Large field-of-view detectors 220.127.116.11 IACT arrays for probing PeV γ-rays 3. Gamma Ray Production and Absorption Mechanisms 3.1 Interactions with Matter 3.1.1 Electron bremsstrahlung and pair-production 3.1.2 Electron-positron annihilation 3.1.3 Gamma rays produced by relativistic protons 18.104.22.168 γ-decay gamma rays 22.214.171.124 Nuclear gamma ray line emission 3.2 Interactions with Photon Fields 3.2.1 Inverse Compton scattering 3.2.2 Photon-photon pair production 3.2.3 Interactions of hadrons with radiation fields 3.3 Interactions with Magnetic Fields 3.3.1 Synchrotron radiation and pair-production 3.3.2 Synchrotron radiation of protons 3.4 Relativistic Electron-Photon Cascades 4. Gamma Rays and Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays 4.1 Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays: General Remarks 4.1.1 What do we know about Cosmic Rays? 4.1.2 What we do not know about Cosmic Rays? 4.1.3 Common beliefs and "nasty" problems 4.1.4 Searching for sites of production of GCRs 4.2 Giant Molecular Clouds as Tracers of Cosmic Ray 4.2.1 Proton fluxes in the ISM near the accelerator 126.96.36.199 Impulsive source 188.8.131.52 Continuous source 184.108.40.206 The case of dense gas regions 4.2.2 Gamma rays from a cloud near the accelerator 4.2.3 Accelerator inside the cloud 4.2.4 On the level of the "sea" of galactic cosmic rays 4.3 Probing the Sources of VHE CR Electrons 4.3.1 Distributions of VHE electrons 4.3.2 Extended regions of IC gamma radiation 4.4 Diffuse Radiation from the Galactic Disk 4.4.1 CR spectra in the inner Galaxy 4.4.2 Diffuse radiation associated with cosmic ray electrons 220.127.116.11 IC gamma rays 18.104.22.168 Electron bremsstrahlung 22.214.171.124 Annihilation of CR positrons in flight 4.4.3 Gamma rays of nucleonic origin 4.4.4 Overall gamma ray fluxes 4.4.5 Probing the diffuse γ-ray background on small scales 4.4.6 Concluding remarks 5. Gamma Ray Visibility of Supernova Remnants 5.1 Gamma Rays as a Diagnostic Tool 5.2 Inverse Compton Versus π0-Decay Gamma Rays 5.3 Synchrotron X-ray Emission of SNRs 5.4 TeV Gamma Radiation of SN 1006 and Similar SNR 5.4.1 Inverse Compton models of TeV emission 5.4.2 Hadronic origin of TeV emission? 5.4.3 Distinct features of electronic and hadronic models 5.4.4 Concluding remarks 5.5 Molecular Clouds Overtaken by SNRs 5.5.1 Bremsstrahlung X-rays from γ Cygni 5.5.2 The case of RX J1713.7-3946 5.6 A Special Case: Gamma Rays from Cassiopeia A 5.7 "PeV SNRs" 6. Pulsars, Pulsar Winds, Plerions 6.1 Magnetospheric Gamma Rays 6.1.1 Polar cap versus outer gap models 6.1.2 Magnetospheric TeV gamma rays? 6.2 Gamma Rays from Unshocked Pulsar Winds 6.2.1 Characteristics of the KED wind 6.2.2 The ejection rate and the particle spectrum 6.2.3 IC Radiation of the pulsar wind in Crab 6.2.4 Gamma rays from winds of PSR B1706-44 and Vela? 6.2.5 IC γ-rays from the binary pulsar PSR B1259-63 6.3 Gamma Rays from Pulsar Driven Nebulae 6.3.1 Broad-band nonthermal radiation of the Crab Nebula 126.96.36.199 Synchrotron and IC radiation 188.8.131.52 Second High Energy Synchrotron Component 184.108.40.206 Bremsstrahlung and π0-decay gamma rays? 220.127.116.11 The objectives of future gamma ray studies 6.4 High Energy Gamma Rays from Other Plerions 6.4.1 Time-evolution of electrons 6.4.2 Target photon fields 6.4.3 Effects of B-field, electron energy, and pulsar age 6.4.4 Synchrotron and IC nebulae around PSR B1706-44 7. Gamma Rays Expected from Microquasars 7.1 Do We Expect Gamma Rays from X-Ray Binaries? 7.2 Nonthermal Phenomena in Microquasars 7.3 Modelling of Radio Flares of GRS 1915+105 7.4 Expected Gamma Ray Fluxes 7.5 Searching for Gamma Ray Signals from Microquasars 7.6 The Case of Microblazars 7.7 Ultraluminous Sources as Microblazars? 7.8 Persistent Gamma Ray Emission from Extended Lobes 8. Large Scale Jets of Radio Galaxies and Quasars 8.1 Synchrotron and IC Models of Large Scale AGN Jets …… 9. Nonthermal Phenomena in Clusters of Galaxies 10. TeV Blazars and Cosmic Background Radiation 11. High Energy Gamma Rays - Carriers of Unique Cosmological Information Appendix A Spherically symmetric diffusion from a single source Appendix B Evolution of relativistic electrons in an expandid magnetised medium B.1 Kinetic equation B.2 Time-independent energy losses B.3 Expanding cloud Bibliography Index
版權頁︰ 插圖︰ On theoretical grounds, the diffusive shock acceleration model faces sev-eral challenges or "nasty problems" (Drury et al., 2001) like the "injectionproblem" and the "maximum energy problem", recently critically reviewedby Kirk and Dendy (2001), Drury (2001) and Malkov and Drury (2001).Diffusive shock acceleration requires particles with energy at least severaltimes larger than the thermal energy of the plasma, and it is not yet clearhow to get particles from the thermal pool accelerated to supra-thermalenergies. Recent theoretical progress in this direction (e.g. Malkov andVSlk, 1995; Dieckmann et al., 2000) provides optimism that eventually theinjection problem will be resolved, most likely through extensive numericalsimulations (Kirk and Dendy, 2001). The problem of the maximum achievable energy problem is an old oneand has a vital implication for the SNR paradigm of GCRs. In diffusiveshock acceleration theory, the maximum energy of particles is achievedduring the so-called free-expansion phase which, however, does not lastlong enough to allow acceleration of particles up to the highly desired point,the knee around 1015 eV. Therefore, violation of the so-called "upper limit"of Lagage and Cesarsky (1983), which, for the standard SNR parameters,the shock speed, duration of the free-expansion phase, and the ambientmagnetic field, cannot significantly exceed 1014 eV, remains as one of thehighest priorities of current theoretical studies. A promising way has recently been suggested by Lucek and Bell (2000).They showed that cosmic ray streaming drives large-amplitude Alfv nicwaves which may amplify the magnetic field non-linearly to many timesthe pre-shock value. Thus, the cosmic rays themselves provide the fieldnecessary for their effective acceleration! The increased magnetic field re-duces the acceleration time, and correspondingly increases the maximumparticle energies to 1015 eV and even beyond.
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