生物工程導論

生物工程導論

图书基本信息
出版时间:2011-8
出版社:化學工業出版社
作者:(美)拉奧 主編,李春 改編
页数:319
书名:生物工程導論
封面图片
生物工程導論
内容概要
  本書是在DG Rao《IntroductiOnto
BiochemicaIEngineering》第二版的基礎上,經過編者重新組織、刪減和修改出版的。主要供生物類專業低年級學生了解生物工程與技術專業的全貌,明晰後續專業課程之間的相互關系,領悟生物工程領域發展的現狀和動態及其對社會和經濟發展的影響,尤其是當今社會在面臨著能源危機、資源危機和環境危機時生物技術所發揮的作用。閱讀《生物工程導論(英文改編版)(第2版)》後,可提高學生對專業知識的理解,激發其進一步學習專業知識的興趣和愛好。對于其他相關專業的學生則可拓展其視野、優化其知識結構、提高其科學素養。
  本書既可作為高等院校生物工程、生物技術、化學工程、制藥工程和環境工程等專業的導論教材,化學、生物和食品等專業的拓展教材,也可供相關學科從事教學、科研和生物產業管理者學習和參考。
书籍目录
Chapter 1 Introduction to Bioprocessing Fundamentals 1
 1.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS OF BIOPROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 1
 1.2 OVERVIEW OF TRADITIONAL AND MODEN APPLICATIONS OF
BIOTECHNOLOGY 3
 1.3 INTERADISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO BIOPROGROCESSING 3
 1.4 OUTLINES OF LINTEGRATED BIOPROCESS 4
 1.5 UNIT OPERATIONS BIOPROCESS 6
 References 7
 Review Questions 7
Chapter 2 Overview of Microbiology 8
 2.1 HISTORIC BACKGROUND 8
 2.2 MICROSCOPY 10
 2.3 MICROBIAL TAXONOMY 10
 2.4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 13
 2.5 NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS 13
 2.6 METABOLISM 15
 2.7 PROCARYOTIC CELL 19
 2.8 EUCARYOTIC CELL 22
 2.9 VIRUSES 26
 2.10 FUNGI 26
 2.11 ALGAE 26
 2.12 PROTOZOA 27
 2.13 IMPORTANCE OF MICROBIOLOGY 27
 2.14 CONCLUDING REMARKS 29
 References 29
 Review Questions 29
Chapter 3 Introduction to Biochemistry 31
 3.1 LIPIDS 31
 3.2 PROTEINS 36
 3.3 CARBOHYDRATES 39
 3.4 NUCLEIC ACIDS 43
 3.5 VITAMINS 45
 References 50
 Review Questions 50
Chapter 4 Enzymes 51
 4.1 HISTORY OF ENZYMES 51
 4.2 CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES 51
 4.3 ENZYMES AS BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS 52
 4.4 ENZYME SPECIFICITY 54
 4.5 ENZYME KINETICS 56
 4.6 IMMOBILIZATION OF ENZYMES 60
 4.7 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ENZYMES 63
 References 67
 Review Questions 68
Chapter 5 Fermentation 69
 5.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF FERMENTATION PROCESS 69
 5.2 RANGE OF FERMENTATION PROCESS 70
 5.3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FERMENTER 76
 5.4 MEDIA DESIGN FOR FERMENTATION 78
 5.5 STERILIZATION 84
 5.6 AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION PROCESSES 90
 5.7 SOLID STATE AND SUBMERGED FERMENTATION AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
91
 5.8 VARIOUS TYPES OF BIOREACTORS 92
 References 98
 Review Questions 100
Chapter 6 Kinetics of Microbial Growth and Biochemical Reactors
101
 6.1 PHASES OF CELL GROWTH 102
 6.2 BATCH REACTOR DATA ANALYSIS 102
 6.3 KINETIC MODELS FOR CELL GROWTH 107
 6.4 GROWTH OF FILAMENTOUS ORGANISMS 112
 6.5 SUBSTRATE AND PRODUCT INHIBITION ON CELL GROWTH 113
 6.6 STRUCTURED MODELS 114
 6.7 DESIGN EQUATIONS BASED ON BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS 116
 References 119
 Review Questions 120
 Problems 120
Chapter 7 Ideal Reactors 121
 7.1 DESIGN OF IDEAL REACTORS 121
 7.2 SINGLE REACTOR 124
 7.3 MULTIPLE REACTORS 131
 References 136
 Review Questions 137
 Problems 137
Chapter 8 Multiple Reactions 138
 8.1 PARALLEL REACTIONS 139
 8.2 SERIES REACTIONS 141
 8.3 SERIES PARALLEL REACTIONS 145
 8.4 DESIGN PRINCIPLES 147
 References 149
 Review Questions 149
Chapter 9 Heat Transfer in Bioprocessing 151
 9.1 HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION 152
 9.2 HEAT TRANSFER BY CONVECTION 159
 9.3 HEAT TRANSFER BY RADIATION 171
 References 176
 Review Questions 177
 Problems 177
Chapter 10 Mass Transfer in Bioprocessing Operations 179
 10.1 MASS TRANSFER BY DIFFUSION 180
 10.2 THEORIES OF DIFFUSIONAL MASS TRANSFER 180
 10.3 MASS TRANSFER BY CONVECTION 183
 10.4 OXYGEN TRANSFER METHODOLOGY IN FERMENTERS 191
 10.5 FACTORS AFFECTING OXYGEN TRANSFER RATE 195
 References 202
 Review Questions 203
 Problems 203
Chapter 11 Heterogeneous Reaction Systems 205
 11.1 MASS TRANSFER CONSIDERATIONS 205
 11.2 INTRA PARTICLE DIFFUSION AND REACTION RATE 208
 11.3 EFFECTIVENESS FACTOR AND THIELE MODULUs 210
 11.4 OBSERVABLE THIELE MODULUS 213
 11.5 BIOREACTOR SELECTION CRITERIA 214
 References 215
 Review Questions 215
Chapter12 Bioreactors and Fermentation 217
 12.1 BIOREACTORS 217
 12.2 MONITORING AND CONTROL OF FERMENTATION PROCESSES 219
 12.3 VARIOUS ACCESSORIES 224
 12.4 CULTIVATION OF ORGANISMS 225
 12.5 MEDIA OPTIMISATION 229
 References 230
 Review Questions 231
Chapter 13 Product Recovery 232
 13.1 REMOVAL OF SUSPENDED SOLIDS 234
 13.2 FILTRATION 234
 13.3 SEDIMENTATION 241
 13.4 CENTRIFUGATION 244
 13.5 CELL DISRUPTION 248
 13.6 EXTRACTION 249
 13.7 MEMBRANE SEPARATION 252
 13.8 CHROMATOGRAPHY 253
 13.9 CRYSTALLISATION 256
 13.10 DRYING 258
 References 265
 Review Questions 265
Chapter 14 Effluent Treatment 267
 14.1 NEED FOR EFFLUENT TREATMENT 267
 14.2 PHYSICAL METHODS 269
 14.3 CHEMICAL METHODS 269
 14.4 BIOLOGICAL METHODS 270
 References 275
 Review Questions 275
Chapter 15 Design and Analysis of Bioreactors 276
 15.1 STABILITY AND ANALYSIS OF BIOREACTORS 277
 15.2 DESIGN AND OPERATION OF BIOREACTORS 279
 15.3 BIOREACTOR FOR PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS 286
 15.4 SCALE UP OF BIOREACTORS 289
 15.5 SOME CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF BIOREACTORS 293
 References 295
 Review Questions 296
Chapter 16 Bioprocess Economics 298
 16.1 PLANTDESIGN AND ECONOMICS 300
 16.2 COST OF PRODUCTION 303
 16.3 BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS 305
 16.4 PROJECT ECONOMICS 307
 16.5 DEPRECIATION 310
 16.6 PROJECT ECONOMICS FOR CITRIC ACID MANUFACTURE 311
 References 319
 Review Questions 319
章节摘录
  Covalent bonding method provides more permanent linkage between the enzyme and the supportmaterial. Covalent bonds can be formed under mild conditions, and the active site of enzyme mustremain free from covalent attachments. There is still some possibility for loss of activity of the enzymeduring bond formation mainly because ofchemical reaction.  (iv) Adsorption  One of the simplest methods for enzyme immobilization is by adsorption. Enzymescan be adsorbed physically on a surface-active adsorbent by weak physical forces such as van der Waals'forces or dispersion forces. Commonly used adsorbents are︰ alumina, clay, silica, anion-exchange resins,these support materials may have to be chemically or physically pretreated. Ion exchange resinsDEAE-Sephadex and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) can also be used as support media. One of thedrawbacks with the adsorption procedure is that since adsorption is a non-specific process, many othersubstances may also be attached to the carrier in addition to the immobilized enzyme. Anotherdisadvantage of this method is that the loading of enzyme on a unit amount of surface is always very low,and the bonding strength is very weak, Still this method is followed for the following distinctadvantages︰  (i) the immobilization procedure is easy and simple  (ii) the adsorption process is reversible  (iii) enzymes are not deactivated by adsorption.  4.6.2 Properties oflmmobilized EnzymesEnzymes are usually immobilized in particle or pellet form; but enzymes may be attached to, orentrapped within carriers in the form ofmembranes, tubes or fibers, based on the requirements of a givenapplication. In view of this, an immobilized enzyme may have different properties as compared to thesame enzyme in a free soluti  n form. The method ofimmobilization and nature ofinsoluble carrier mayhave influence on the enzyme properties. The specific activity may reduce in the immobilized enzyme,particularly if a chemical process is involved in the immobilization method. The enzyme stability mayvary on heating or storage. The pH optimum can change by as much as two pH units for the immobilizedenzyme, mainly because ofthe new microenvironment as compared to the pure enzyme.   ……?
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