半導體光學和輸運現象

半導體光學和輸運現象

图书基本信息
出版时间:2011-6
出版社:科學出版社
作者:(美國) 舍費爾 (W.Schafer M.Wegener)
页数:495
书名:半導體光學和輸運現象
封面图片
半導體光學和輸運現象
内容概要
  Well-balanced and up-to-date introduction to the field of semiconductor optics, including transport phenomena in semiconductors. Starting with the theoretical fundamentals of this field the book develops, assuming a basic knowledge of solid-state physics. The application areas of the theory covered include semiconductor lasers, detectors, electro-optic modulators, single-electron transistors, microcavities and double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes. One hundred problems with hints for solution help the readers to deepen their knowledge.
作者简介
作者︰(美國)舍費爾 (美國)M.Wegener
书籍目录
1.Some Basic Facts on Semiconductors1.1 Semiconductor Heterostructures1.2 Doped and Modulation-Doped Semiconductors2.Interaction of Matter and Electromagnetic Fields2.1 Microscopic Maxwell Equations2.2 The Many-Particle Hailliltonian2.3 Second Quantization for Particles2.4 Quantization of Electromagnetic Fields2.4.1 Coherent States2.5 The Interaction Hamitonian of Fields and Particles2.6 Macroscopic Maxwell Equations and Response Functions2.6.1 Direct Calculation of Induced Charges and Currents2.6.2 Phenomenological Theory of Linear Response2.6.3 Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory2.6.4 Longitudinal Response Functions2.6.5 Transverse Response Functions2.7 Measurable Quantities in Optics2.7.1 Linear Optical Susceptibnity and Macroscopic Polarization2.7.2 Absorption cOEfficient2.8 Problems3.One-Particle Properties3.1 Hartree-Fock Theory for Zero Temperature3.2 Hartree-Fock Theory for Finite Temperature3.3 Band Structure and Ground-State Properties3.3.1 The Local-Density Approximation3.3.2 Lattice Periodicity3.4 The Effective-Mass Approximation3.5 Kp Perturbation Theory for Degenerate Bands3.6 Transition Matrix Elements3.7 Density of States3.8 Position of the Chemical Potential3.9 Problems4.Uncorrelated Optical Transitions4.1 The Optical Bloch Equations4.2 Linear Optical Properties4.3 Nonlinear Optical Properties4.3.1 Perturbation Analysis in the Frequency Domain4.3.2 Introducing the Bloch Vector4.3.3 Perturbation Analysis in the Time Domain4.3.4 Alternative Approaches4.4 Semiconductor Photodetectors4.4.1 The Field-Field Correlation Punction and its Relation to Coherence4.5 Problems5.Correlated Transitions of Bloch Electrons5.1 Equations of Motion in the Hartree-Fock Approximation5.2 Linear Optical Properties:The Continuum of Interband Transitions5.2.1 The Bethe-Salpeter Equation5.2.2 The Dielectric Function5.3 Solution by Continued Fractions5.4 Problems6.Correlated Transitions near the Band Edge6.1 The Semiconductor Bloch Equations6.2 Linear Optical Properties:Bound Electron-Hole Pairs6.2.1 The Coulomb Green's Function6.2.2 Optical Properties due to Bound Electron-Hole Pairs6.2.3 Numerical Methods6.2.4 Excitons in Quantum Wells6.2.5 Propagation of Light:Polaritons and Cavity Polaritons6.3 Nonlinear Optical Properties6.3.1 The Local-Field Approximation6.3.2 Numerical Solutions6.4 Problems7.Influence of Static Magnetic Fields7.1 One-Particle Properties7.1.1 Effective Mass Theory for Isolated Bands7.1.2 Degenerate Bloch Electrons in a Magnetic Field7.1.3 One-Particle States in Quantum Wells7.2 Optical Properties of Magneto-Excitons7.2.1 Evaluation of the Coulomb Matrix Element7.2.2 Linear Optical Properties7.2.3 Semiconductor Bloch Equations in Two and Three Dimensions7.2.4 Bose Condensation of Magnetoexcitons in Two Dimensions7.2.5 Nonlinear Absorption of Magnetoexcitons in Quantum Wells7.3 Problems8.Influence of Static Electric Fields8.1 Introduction8.2 Uncorrelated Optical Transitions in Uniform Electric Fields8.2.1 Optical Absorption8.3 Correlated Optical Transitions in Uniform Electric Fields8.3.1 An Analytical Model8.3.2 Representation in Parabolic Coordinates8.4 Quantum Wells in Electric Fields8.5 Superlattices in Electric Fields8.5.1 One-Particle States in Superlattices8.5.2 Semiconductor Bloch Equations8.6 Problems9.Biexeitons9.1 Truncation of the Many-Particle Problem in Coherently Driven Systems9.1.1 Decomposition of Expectation Values9.2 Equations of Motion in the Coherent Limit9.2.1 Variational Methods9.2.2 Eigenfunction Expansion9.3 Bound-State and Scattering Contributions9.3.1 Separation of Bound States9.3.2 Biexcitonic Scattering Contributions9.4 Signatures of Biexcitonic Bound States9.4.1 Nonlinear Absorption9.4.2 Four-Wave Mixing9.5 Problems10.Nonequilibrium Green's Functions10.1 Time Evolution under the Action of External Fields10.2 Definitions of One-Particle Green's Functions10.3 Equations of Motion of One-Particle Green's Functions10.4 Screened Interaction,Polarization,and Vertex Function10.5 Quantum Kinetic Equations10.5.1 The Two-Time Formalism10.5.2 Reduction of Propagators to Single Time Functions10.6 The Self-Energy in Different Approximations10.6.1 Ground-State Energy10.6.2 The Screened Hartree-Fock Approximation10.7 The Screened Interaction10.7.1 Separation of the Intraband and the Interband Susceptibility10.7.2 The Screened Interaction in Random Phase Appproximation10.8 The Second-Order Born Approximation10.9 Problems11.The Electron-Phonon Interaction11.1 The Phonon-Induced Interaction11.2 The Phonon Green's Function11.2.1 Eigenmodes of Lattice Vibrations11.2.2 Green's Function Representation of the Density-Density Correlation Function11.3 Electron Phonon Coupling in the Long-Wavelength Limit11.3.1 Coupling to Longitudinal Optical Phonons11.3.2 Coupling to Acoustic Phonons11.4 The Phonon Self-Energy11.4.1 The Polaron11.4.2 Dephasing Induced by Phonons11.5 Nonequilibrium Phonons11.5.1 Renormalization of Phonons11.5.2 Kinetic Equation for the Phonon Green's Function11.6 Problems12.Scattering and Screening Processes12.1 Carrier Phonon Scattering12.1.1 Luminescence Spectra12.1.2 Four-Wave-Mixing Experiments12.1.3 Nonequilibrium Phonons12.2 Carrier-Carrier Scattering12.2.1 The Limit of Quasi-Equilibrium12.3 Scattering in the Presence of Bound States12.3.1 Exciton-Phonon Scattering12.3.2 Exciton-Exciton versus Exciton-Electron Scattering12.4 Problems13.The Semiconductor Laser13.1 Introduction13.2 Semiclassical Approach13.2.1 The Semiconductor Bloch Equations in a Cavity13.2.2 The Standard Rate Equations13.2.3 Extended Rate Equations13.2.4 Spectral Hole-Burning13.3 Quantum Theory13.3.1 The Photon Kinetics13.3.2 The Carrier Kinetics13.3.3 The Semiconductor Laser Linewidth13.4 Problems14.Classical Transport14.1 Transport Coefficients(Without Magnetic Field)14.1.1 Electrical Conductivity14.1.2 Peltier Coefficient14.1.3 Thermal Conductivity14.2 Transport Coefficients(with Magnetic Field)14.2.1 Hall Effect and Hall Resistance14.3 Towards Ballistic Electrons:The Hot-Electron Transistor14.4 Problems15.Electric Fields in Mesoscopic Systems15.1 Elementary Approach15.1.1 Resonant Tunneling Ⅰ15.1.2 Quantized Conductance15.1.3 Coulomb Blockade and the SET Transistor15.2 Resonant Tunneling Ⅱ15.2.1 Boundary Conditions and Discretization15.2.2 Scattering Contributions15.2.3 Numerical Results15.2.4 Time-Dependent Phenomena15.3 Problems16.Electric and Magnetic Fields in Mesoscopic Systems16.1 The Integer Quantum Hall Effect16.2 Edge Channels and the Landauer-Buttiker Multiprobe Formula16.2.1 Edge Channels16.3 Microscopic Derivation of the Landauer-Biittiker Formula16.3.1 Linear Response Theory16.3.2 The Multiprobe Landauer-B ttiker Formula16.4 The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect16.5 Magnetotransport Through Dot or Antidot-Lattices16.6 ProblemsReferencesIndex
章节摘录
版權頁︰插圖︰Semiconductors have entered our everyday life to such a degree that the no-tion of a "silicon age" has been employed. Silicon is in fact the most important material as far as commercial applications of semiconductors are concerned.However, while silicon satisfies most of our current needs for electronics, it is only of limited use for optoelectronic applications. Semiconductor lasers,which are at the heart of compact disc players (present in most households),laser printers, and light modulators, the key to today's telecommunication systems, require a direct band gap. Hence, many other semiconductor ma-terials are subjects of current interest. Moreover, today's scientists are no longer satisfied with the variety of bulk materials provided by nature, but have become artists who design semiconductor heterostructures and mesos-copic semiconductor devices corresponding to their needs and interests. This often results in surprising and quite remarkable material properties. Many of these structures, and their optical and transport properties will be discussed in this book.
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